Antibiotic resistance: what can we do about it?
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Allen, H., Donato, J., Wang, H. et al. Call of the wild: antibiotic resistance genes in natural environments. Nat Rev Microbiol 8, 251–259 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1038/nrmicro2312
Find new ways to destroy pathogenic bacteria - namely CRISPR.
Chokshi, Aastha, et al. "Global contributors to antibiotic resistance." Journal of global infectious diseases 11.1 (2019): 36.
Terns, Michael P., and Rebecca M. Terns. "CRISPR-based adaptive immune systems." Current opinion in microbiology 14.3 (2011): 321-327.
Langdon, Amy, Nathan Crook, and Gautam Dantas. "The effects of antibiotics on the microbiome throughout development and alternative approaches for therapeutic modulation." Genome medicine 8.1 (2016): 39.
Khan, Rabia, Fernanda Cristina Petersen, and Sudhanshu Shekhar. "Commensal bacteria: an emerging player in defense against respiratory pathogens." Frontiers in Immunology 10 (2019): 1203.
Askarova, Sholpan, et al. "The Links Between the Gut Microbiome, Aging, Modern Lifestyle and Alzheimer's Disease." Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology 10 (2020): 104.
Take antibiotics only when absolutely necessary
More responsible doctor's prescriptions
T. P. Lam and K. F. Lam, “What are the non-biomedical reasons which make family doctors over-prescribe antibiotics for upper respiratory tract infection in a mixed private/public Asian setting?,” J. Clin. Pharm. Ther., 2003.
“Race against time to develop new antibiotics,” Bull. World Health Organ., 2011.
Implementing "natural antibiotics" in our diet
- Garlic (inhibits the growth of Salmonella, Escherichia coli, MDR tuberculosis)
- Honey (helps wound healing by inhibition of bacterial growth)
- Ginger (fight of many bacteria)
- Echinacea (kill many different kinds of bacteria, including Streptococcus pyogenes; fights inflammation)
- Goldenseal (respiratory and intestinal problems; skin infections)
- Clove (water solution effective against many bacteria)
- Oregano (immuno booster, antioxidant, oregano oil has good antibacterial characteristics)
- Red pepper (inhibiting the bacteria growth)
- Cinnamon (effective in treating conditions caused by bacteria and viruses, even funghi)
- Turmeric (reducing the activity of the microbes; anti-inflammatory)
Hospitals should strictly comply with the cleaning and safety procedures
Do not miss your antibiotic doses
Try to prevent infections in the first place
Antibiotics resistance is not necessarily being spread by taking these drugs directly
Blocking the bacterial "evolvability factors"
Antimicrobial peptides as potent weaponry against pathogens
Mahlapuu, M., Håkansson, J., Ringstad, L. and Björn, C., 2016. Antimicrobial peptides: an emerging category of therapeutic agents. Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 6, p.194.