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What are some of the most promising natural compounds we can use to slow aging?

Image credit: https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Ginseng#section=2D-Structure

Brett M.
Brett M. Dec 03, 2020

[1]Gawa-Ochiai K, Kawasaki K. Panax ginseng for frailty-related disorders: a review. Front Nutr 2018;5:140

[2]Kim HJ, Jung SW, Kim SY, Cho IH, Kim HC, Rhim H, et al. Panax ginseng as an adjuvant treatment for Alzheimer’s disease. J Ginseng Res 2018;42:401–11.

[3]Hwang SH, Shin TJ, Choi SH, Cho HJ, Lee BH, Pyo MK, et al. Gintonin, newly identified compounds from ginseng, is novel lysophosphatidic acids-protein complexes and activates G protein-coupled lysophosphatidic acid receptors with high affinity. Mol Cells 2012;33:151–62.

[4]Tigyi G, Miledi R. Lysophosphatidates bound to serum albumin activate membrane currents in Xenopus oocytes and neurite retraction in PC12 pheochromocytoma cells. J Biol Chem 1992;267:21360–7.

[5]Kim S, Kim MS, Park K, Kim HJ, Jung SW, Nah SY, et al. Hippocampusdependent cognitive enhancement induced by systemic gintonin administration. J Ginseng Res 2016;40:55–61.

[6]Nam SM, Hwang H, Seo M, Chang BJ,Kim HJ, Choi SH, et al. Gintonin attenuates d-galactose-induced hippocampal senescence by improving long-term hippocampal potentiation, neurogenesis, and cognitive functions. Gerontology 2018;64:562–75.

[7]Kim HJ, Jung SW, Kim SY, Cho IH, Kim HC, Rhim H, et al. Panax ginseng as an adjuvant treatment for Alzheimer’s disease. J Ginseng Res 2018;42:401–11.

Creative contributions

Curcumin Derived From Turmeric

Ruby Grewal Dec 03, 2020

[1]Fadus MC, Lau C, Bikhchandani J, Lynch HT. Curcumin: An age-old anti-inflammatory and anti-neoplastic agent. J Tradit Complement Med. 2016 Sep 9;7(3):339-346. PMID:28725630. PMCID: PMC5506636 doi: 10.1016/j.jtcme.2016.08.002

[2]Liao V.H.C., Yu C.W., Chu Y.J., Li W.H., Hsieh Y.C., Wang T.T. Curcumin-mediated lifespan extension in Caenorhabditis elegans. Mech. Ageing Dev. 2011;132:480–487. PMID: 21855561. doi: 10.1016/j.mad.2011.07.008.

[3]Lee K.-S., Lee B.-S., Semnani S., Avanesian A., Um C.-Y., Jeon H.-J., Seong K.-M., Yu K., Min K.-J., Jafari M. Curcumin Extends Life Span, Improves Health Span, and Modulates the Expression of Age-Associated Aging Genes in Drosophila melanogaster. Rejuvenation Res. 2010;13:561–570. PMID: 20645870. doi: 10.1089/rej.2010.1031.

[4]Soh J.W., Marowsky N., Nichols T.J., Rahman A.M., Miah T., Sarao P., Khasawneh R., Unnikrishnan A., Heydari A.R., Silver R.B., et al. Curcumin is an early-acting stage-specific inducer of extended functional longevity in Drosophila. Exp. Gerontol. 2013;48:229–239. PMID: 23063786. doi: 10.1016/j.exger.2012.09.007.

[5]Shen L.R., Parnell L.D., Ordovas J.M., Lai C.Q. Curcumin and aging. BioFactors. 2013;39:133–140. PMID: 23325575. doi: 10.1002/biof.1086.

[6]Sikora E., Scapagnini G., Barbagallo M. Curcumin, inflammation, ageing and age-related diseases. Immun. Ageing. 2010;7:1. PMID: 20205886. PMCID: PMC2827376. doi: 10.1186/1742-4933-7-1.

[7]Gupta SC, Patchva S, Aggarwal BB. Therapeutic roles of curcumin: lessons learned from clinical trials. AAPS J. 2013;15(1):195-218. PMID: 23143785. PMCID: PMC3535097. doi:10.1208/s12248-012-9432-8.

[8]López-Otín C, Blasco MA, Partridge L, Serrano M, Kroemer G. The hallmarks of aging. Cell. 2013 Jun 6;153(6):1194-217. PMID: 23746838; PMCID: PMC3836174. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2013.05.039.

[9]Daily JW, Yang M, Park S. Efficacy of Turmeric Extracts and Curcumin for Alleviating the Symptoms of Joint Arthritis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials. J Med Food. 2016;19(8):717-729. PMID: 27533649. PMCID: PMC5003001. doi:10.1089/jmf.2016.3705

[10]Dhillon N, Aggarwal BB, Newman RA, Wolff RA, Kunnumakkara AB, Abbruzzese JL, Ng CS, Badmaev V, Kurzrock R. Phase II trial of curcumin in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2008 Jul 15;14(14):4491-9. PMID: 18628464. doi:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-08-0024.

[11]Carroll RE, Benya RV, Turgeon DK, et al. Phase IIa clinical trial of curcumin for the prevention of colorectal neoplasia [published correction appears in Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2012 Dec;5(12):1407. Dosage error in article text]. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2011;4(3):354-364. PMID: 21372035. PMCID: PMC4136551. doi:10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-10-0098.

[12]DiSilvestro RA, Joseph E, Zhao S, Bomser J. Diverse effects of a low dose supplement of lipidated curcumin in healthy middle aged people. Nutr J. 2012 Sep 26;11:79. PMID: 23013352; PMCID: PMC3518252. doi: 10.1186/1475-2891-11-79.

Flavonoids in Blueberries

Shubhankar Kulkarni
Shubhankar Kulkarni Dec 03, 2020

[1]Joanna L. Bowtell, Zainie Aboo-Bakkar, Myra E. Conway, Anna-Lynne R. Adlam, and Jonathan Fulford. Enhanced task-related brain activation and resting perfusion in healthy older adults after chronic blueberry supplementation. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism. 42(7): 773-779. https://doi.org/10.1139/apnm-2016-0550

[2]Sarah A. Johnson, Arturo Figueroa, Negin Navaei Alexei Wong, Roy Kalfon, Lauren T. Ormsbee, Rafaela G. Feresin, Marcus L. Elam, Shirin Hooshmand, Mark E. Payton, Bahram H. Arjmandi. Daily Blueberry Consumption Improves Blood Pressure and Arterial Stiffness in Postmenopausal Women with Pre- and Stage 1-Hypertension: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial. Published:January 07, 2015 DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jand.2014.11.001

Shubhankar Kulkarni
Shubhankar Kulkarni2 months ago
Fisetin (3,3′,4′,7-tetrahydroxyflavone, a flavonoid) from strawberry, apple, persimmon, grape, onion, and cucumber.

A study screened flavonoids for senolytic activity using senescent murine and human fibroblasts, driven by oxidative and genotoxic stress, respectively. Of the flavonoids tested, fisetin was the most potent senolytic. Acute or intermittent treatment of progeroid and old mice with fisetin reduced senescence markers in multiple tissues. Fisetin reduced senescence in a subset of cells in murine and human adipose tissue, demonstrating cell-type specificity. In older wild-type mice, administration of fisetin restored tissue homeostasis, reduced age-related pathology, and extended median and maximum lifespan.

Reference: Yousefzadeh MJ, Zhu Y, McGowan SJ, et al. Fisetin is a senotherapeutic that extends health and lifespan. EBioMedicine. 2018;36:18-28. doi:10.1016/j.ebiom.2018.09.015

Biophenols from olives and nuts reduce cognitive decline and improve cardiovascular markers

Shubhankar Kulkarni
Shubhankar Kulkarni Dec 03, 2020

[1]Omar, S.H. Mediterranean and MIND Diets Containing Olive Biophenols Reduces the Prevalence of Alzheimer’s Disease. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 2797.

[2]N.R.T. Damasceno, A. Pérez-Heras, M. Serra, M. Cofán, A. Sala-Vila, J. Salas-Salvadó, E. Ros. Crossover study of diets enriched with virgin olive oil, walnuts or almonds. Effects on lipids and other cardiovascular risk markers. Published:March 23, 2011DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.numecd.2010.12.006

Natural compounds found in ginger extracts

Jamila Dec 03, 2020

[1]Nile, Shivraj Hariram, and Se Won Park. "Chromatographic analysis, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities of ginger extracts and its reference compounds." Industrial Crops and Products 70 (2015): 238-244.

[2]Shanmugam, Kondeti Ramudu, et al. "Protective effect of dietary ginger on antioxidant enzymes and oxidative damage in experimental diabetic rat tissues." Food Chemistry 124.4 (2011): 1436-1442.

[3]Park, Gunhyuk, et al. "6-Shogaol, an active compound of ginger, protects dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease models via anti-neuroinflammation." Acta Pharmacologica Sinica 34.9 (2013): 1131-1139.

[4]Zeng, Gao-feng, et al. "Protective effects of ginger root extract on Alzheimer disease-induced behavioral dysfunction in rats." Rejuvenation Research 16.2 (2013): 124-133.

[5]Lee, Chan, et al. "[6]-Gingerol attenuates β-amyloid-induced oxidative cell death via fortifying cellular antioxidant defense system." Food and chemical toxicology 49.6 (2011): 1261-1269.

[6]J. A. O. Ojewole, "Analgesic, anti-inflammatory and hypoglycaemic effects of ethanol extract of Zingiber officinale (Roscoe) rhizomes (Zingiberaceae) in mice and rats," Phytotherapy Research, vol. 20, no. 9, pp. 764–772, 2006.

[7]Zhou, Yu-zhi, et al. "Ginger extract extends the lifespan of Drosophila melanogaster through antioxidation and ameliorating metabolic dysfunction." Journal of Functional Foods 49 (2018): 295-305.


Brett M.
Brett M. Dec 06, 2020

[1]Fuentes F, Paredes-Gonzalez X, Kong AN (2015) Dietary glucosinolates sulforaphane, phenethyl isothiocyanate, indole-3-carbinol/3,30 -diindolylmethane: anti-oxidative stress/inflammation, Nrf2, epigenetics/epigenomics and in vivo cancer chemopreventive efficacy. Curr Pharmacol Rep 1:179–196. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40495-015-0017- y

[2]Villatoro-Pulido M, Font R, Saha S, Obrego´n-Cano S, Anter J, Mun˜oz-Serrano A, De Haro-Bailo´n A, Alonso-Moraga A, Del Rı´o-Celestino M (2012) In vivo biological activity of rocket extracts (Eruca vesicaria subsp. sativa (Miller) Thell) and sulforaphane. Food Chem Toxicol 50:1384–1392. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2012.02.017

[3]Zhang R, Zhang J, Fang L, Li X, Zhao Y, Shi W, An L (2015) Neuroprotective effects of sulforaphane on cholinergic neurons in mice with Alzheimer’s disease-like lesions. Int J Mol Sci 15:14396–14410. https://doi.org/10.3390/ ijms150814396

[4]Xu Z, Wang S, Ji H, Zhang Z, Chen J, Tan Y, Wintergerst K, Zheng Y, Sun J, Cai L (2016) Broccoli sprout extract prevents diabetic cardiomyopathy via Nrf2 activation in db/db T2DM mice. Sci Rep 6:30252. https://doi.org/10. 1038/srep30252

Astaxanthin as a neuroprotector

Brett M.
Brett M. Dec 17, 2020

[1]Fakhri, S.; Abbaszadeh, F.; Dargahi, L.; Jorjani, M. Astaxanthin: A mechanistic review on its biological activities and health benefits. Pharmacol. Res. 2018, 136, 1–20

[2]Bhat, A.H.; Dar, K.B.; Anees, S.; Zargar, M.A.; Masood, A.; Sofi, M.A.; Ganie, S.A. Oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and neurodegenerative diseases; a mechanistic insight. Biomed. Pharmacother. Biomed. Pharmacother. 2015, 74, 101–110

[3]Fakhri, S.; Dargahi, L.; Abbaszadeh, F.; Jorjani, M. Effects of astaxanthin on sensory-motor function in a compression model of spinal cord injury: Involvement of ERK and AKT signalling pathway. Eur. J. Pain 2019, 23, 750–764

[4] Fakhri, S.; Dargahi, L.; Abbaszadeh, F.; Jorjani, M. Astaxanthin attenuates neuroinflammation contributed to the neuropathic pain and motor dysfunction following compression spinal cord injury. Brain Res. Bull. 2018, 143, 217–224

[5]Kidd, P. Astaxanthin, cell membrane nutrient with diverse clinical benefits and anti-aging potential. Altern. Med. Rev. A J. Clin. Ther. 2011, 16, 355–364.

[6]Tan BJ, Chiu GN. Role of oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress and ERK activation in triptolide-induced apoptosis. Int J Oncol. 2013 May;42(5):1605-12. doi: 10.3892/ijo.2013.1843. Epub 2013 Mar 1. PMID: 23467622.

[7]Masoudi, A.; Dargahi, L.; Abbaszadeh, F.; Pourgholami, M.H.; Asgari, A.; Manoochehri, M.; Jorjani, M. Neuroprotective effects of astaxanthin in a rat model of spinal cord injury. Behav. Brain Res. 2017, 329, 104–110.

[8]Nouchi R, Suiko T, Kimura E, Takenaka H, Murakoshi M, Uchiyama A, Aono M, Kawashima R. Effects of Lutein and Astaxanthin Intake on the Improvement of Cognitive Functions among Healthy Adults: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials. Nutrients. 2020 Feb 27;12(3):617. doi: 10.3390/nu12030617. PMID: 32120794; PMCID: PMC7146131.

[9]Ito N, Saito H, Seki S, Ueda F, Asada T. Effects of Composite Supplement Containing Astaxanthin and Sesamin on Cognitive Functions in People with Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial. J Alzheimers Dis. 2018;62(4):1767-1775. doi: 10.3233/JAD-170969. Erratum in: J Alzheimers Dis. 2019;68(2):839. PMID: 29614679; PMCID: PMC5900571.

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