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What are the molecular and cellular characteristics of immortal organisms? Can we mimic them?

What are the molecular and cellular characteristics of immortal organisms? Can we mimic them?

Image credit: Photo by Magda Ehlers from Pexels

By Shubhankar Kulkarni on Oct 16, 2020

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Hydra stem cells are immune to changes in the nuclear envelope architecture

[1] Lattanzi G, Ortolani M, Columbaro M, Prencipe S, Mattioli E, Lanzarini C, et al. Lamins are rapamycin targets that impact human longevity: a study in centenarians. J Cell Sci [Internet]. 2014 Jan 1;127(1):147–57. Available from: http://jcs.biologists.org/cgi/doi/10.1242/jcs.133983

[2] Klimovich A, Rehm A, Wittlieb J, Herbst E-M, Benavente R, Bosch TCG. Non-senescent Hydra tolerates severe disturbances in the nuclear lamina. Aging (Albany NY) [Internet]. 2018 May 10;10(5):951–72. Available from: https://www.aging-us.com/lookup/doi/10.18632/aging.101440

by Shubhankar Kulkarni on Oct 16, 2020

Hydra is in an unending growth phase

[1] Dańko MJ, Kozłowski J, Schaible R. Unraveling the non-senescence phenomenon in Hydra. J Theor Biol [Internet]. 2015 Oct;382:137–49. Available from: https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0022519315003227

by Shubhankar Kulkarni on Oct 16, 2020

The senescent cells in a naked mole rat are metabolically less active and cannot overcome oxidative stress

[1] Zhao Y, Tyshkovskiy A, Muñoz-Espín D, Tian X, Serrano M, de Magalhaes JP, et al. Naked mole rats can undergo developmental, oncogene-induced and DNA damage-induced cellular senescence. Proc Natl Acad Sci [Internet]. 2018 Feb 20;115(8):1801–6. Available from: http://www.pnas.org/lookup/doi/10.1073/pnas.1721160115

[2] Kawamura Y, Oka K, Takamori M, Sugiura Y, Oiwa Y, Fujioka S, et al. Senescent cell death as an aging resistance mechanism in naked mole-rat. bioRxiv [Internet]. 2020; Available from: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.07.02.155903v1

by Shubhankar Kulkarni on Oct 16, 2020

Can we learn from exceptionally long-living plants?

[1] Flanary, B. E., & Kletetschka, G. (2005). Analysis of telomere length and telomerase activity in tree species of various life-spans, and with age in the bristlecone pine Pinus longaeva. Biogerontology, 6(2), 101–111. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10522-005-3484-4

[2] Song, J., Logeswaran, D., Castillo-González, C., Li, Y., Bose, S., Aklilu, B. B., Ma, Z., Polkhovskiy, A., Chen, J. J.-L., & Shippen, D. E. (2019). The conserved structure of plant telomerase RNA provides the missing link for an evolutionary pathway from ciliates to humans. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 116(49), 24542–24550. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1915312116

[3] J. W. Shay, W. E. Wright, Telomeres and telomerase: Three decades of progress. Nat. Rev. Genet. 20, 299–309 (2019)

[4] J. D. Podlevsky, J. J. Chen, Evolutionary perspectives of telomerase RNA structure and function. RNA Biol. 13, 720–732 (2016).

[5] Shemesh, H., Boaz, B. E., Millar, C. I., & Bruns, T. D. (2019). Symbiotic interactions above treeline of long‐lived pines: Mycorrhizal advantage of limber pine ( Pinus flexilis ) over Great Basin bristlecone pine ( Pinus longaeva ) at the seedling stage. Journal of Ecology, 108(3), 908–916. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2745.13312

by Subash Chapagain on Oct 17, 2020

Can we learn from Tardigrades?

[1] Jönsson KI, Holm I, Tassidis H. Cell Biology of the Tardigrades: Current Knowledge and Perspectives. Results Probl Cell Differ. 2019;68:231-249. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-23459-1_10. PMID: 31598859.

[2] Gamma Rays: Horikawa DD, Sakashita T, Katagiri C, Watanabe M, Kikawada T, Nakahara Y, Hamada N, Wada S, Funayama T, Higashi S, Kobayashi Y, Okuda T, Kuwabara M. Radiation tolerance in the tardigrade Milnesium tardigradum. Int J Radiat Biol. 2006 Dec;82(12):843-8. doi: 10.1080/09553000600972956. PMID: 17178624.

[3] Hashimoto, T., Horikawa, D., Saito, Y. et al. Extremotolerant tardigrade genome and improved radiotolerance of human cultured cells by tardigrade-unique protein. Nat Commun 7, 12808 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms12808

by Antonio Carusillo on Oct 17, 2020

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