How can we treat chromosomal abnormalities?
Image credit: Wessex Reg. Genetics Centre. Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)
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Is the problem still unsolved?
Is it concisely described?
- Deletion - a part of the chromosome is deleted.
- Duplication - a part of the chromosome has been duplicated.
- Inversion - the genetic material is the wrong way around because the chromosome detached, inverted, then re-attached.
- Translocation - a part of the chromosome is transferred to another chromosome.
- Aneuploidy – is when there is an extra or missing chromosome.
New York-Mid-Atlantic Consortium for Genetic and Newborn Screening Services. Understanding genetics: a New York, mid-Atlantic guide for patients and health professionals. Lulu. com, 2009.
Wolff, Sheldon. “Chromosome aberrations.” Radiation Protection and Recovery (A. Hollaender, ed.) 7 (2013): 157-174.
Kazemi, Mohammad, Mansoor Salehi, and Majid Kheirollahi. "Down syndrome: current status, challenges and future perspectives." International journal of molecular and cellular medicine 5.3 (2016): 125.
Using XIST controlled dosage compensation to rectify trisomy
Jiang, J., Jing, Y., Cost, G. et al. Translating dosage compensation to trisomy 21. Nature 500, 296–300 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1038/nature12394
Disteche, C. M. (2012). Dosage Compensation of the Sex Chromosomes. Annual Review of Genetics, 46(1), 537–560. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genet-110711-155454
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Fabio Savarese, Katja Flahndorfer, Rudolf Jaenisch, Meinrad Busslinger, Anton Wutz Hematopoietic Precursor Cells Transiently Reestablish Permissiveness for XInactivation Molecular and Cellular Biology Sep 2006, 26 (19) 7167-7177; DOI: 10.1128/MCB.00810-06
Berletch, J.B., Yang, F., Xu, J. et al. Genes that escape from X inactivation. Hum Genet 130, 237–245 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00439-011-1011-z
Engreitz, J. M., Pandya-Jones, A., McDonel, P., Shishkin, A., Sirokman, K., Surka, C., Kadri, S., Xing, J., Goren, A., Lander, E. S., Plath, K., & Guttman, M. (2013). The Xist lncRNA Exploits Three-Dimensional Genome Architecture to Spread Across the X Chromosome. Science, 341(6147), 1237973. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1237973
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Using CRISPR to treat trisomies
- I wonder how the extra chromosome was specifically targeted without impacting all three of the chromosomes in the Down syndrome patient's cells?
- Would partial chromosomal editing ameliorate the disease severity?
- Would randomly deleting a chromosome mid-life have lethal consequences?
Zuo, Erwei, et al. "CRISPR/Cas9-mediated targeted chromosome elimination." Genome biology 18.1 (2017): 224.
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Developing an Inhibitory Cocktail to address Down-Syndrome
Altered Hippocampal-Prefrontal Neural Dynamics in Mouse Models of Down Syndrome Chang, Pishan et al. Cell Reports, Volume 30, Issue 4, 1152 - 1163.e4
Gough G, O'Brien NL, Alic I, Goh PA, Yeap YJ, Groet J, Nizetic D, Murray A. Modeling Down syndrome in cells: From stem cells to organoids. Prog Brain Res. 2020;251:55-90. doi: 10.1016/bs.pbr.2019.10.003. Epub 2019 Nov 20. PMID: 32057312.
Kurata, M., Yamamoto, K., Moriarity, B.S. et al. CRISPR/Cas9 library screening for drug target discovery. J Hum Genet 63, 179–186 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1038/s10038-017-0376-9