Personalized on-a-chip test for inhalation allergies
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- Patients with suspected allergies to inhalation allergens would come to the hospital and have their nasal epithelial cells isolated and cultured as described by Hussain et al (2013) .
- Patients nasal epithelial cells would then be seeded into specially designed microfluidics chips (Figure 1). The chip would be designed to have multiple channels for multiple allergen testing in the same time (Figure 2). The allergens would be introduced by air to simulate inhalation allergen effect on nasal mucus. After every reaction, nasal mucus would be collected and washed with saline.
- Measuring parameters would be objective and would consist of technical characteristics like volume of the channel, secreted nasal mucus volume, time fo reaction, response to increasing concentrations of allergen (determining the triggering concentration), with additional chemical and biological analysis of the secreted mucus (diagnostic phase) and cells which could later be lysed and their DNA/RNA sequenced to look for changed genes or pathways (research phase). Since different measuring systems can be implemented on a chip, different characteristics could be tracked during exposure to allergens (molecules in the exiting air, different temperatures of the air, etc).
- skin (contact allergens; latex gloves, jewelery jewelrychemicals, etc.)
- ingestion (food, drugs)
- injection (medications, bee sting)
- inhalation (pollens, dust, mold, animal dander, etc.)
- skin tests
- Skin prick test (SPT) - tests IgE mediated type I allergic reactions (allergic rhynitis, atopic asthma, acute urticaria, food allergy, etc.); study showed that SPT alone was capable of detecting only 68.5% of allergic rhinitis patients
- Intradermal skin tests (ID) - same as the above, but the antigen is injected in the outer layer of the skin
- Patch test - investigation of the antigens causing contact dermatitis
- blood tests
- Total serum IgE - scanning blood for specific antibodies
- challenge tests - you are challenged to ingest an increasing amounts of the suspected allergen under doctor's supervision
- other specific allergic rhinitis tests: