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Is our mean body temperature decreasing and why? What can we learn from it?

Image credit: Kelly Sikkema / unsplash

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J
Juran Nov 11, 2020

[1]https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/10/201028171432.htm

[2]https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_body_temperature

[3]https://advances.sciencemag.org/content/6/44/eabc6599

13
Creative contributions

Problems with Carl Wunderlich's temperature measurements

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Shubhankar Kulkarni
Shubhankar Kulkarni Nov 12, 2020

[1]Mackowiak PA, Wasserman SS, Levine MM. A Critical Appraisal of 98.6°F, the Upper Limit of the Normal Body Temperature, and Other Legacies of Carl Reinhold August Wunderlich. JAMA. 1992;268(12):1578–1580. doi:10.1001/jama.1992.03490120092034 https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/article-abstract/400116

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Juran3 months ago
I agree. Carl wunderlich also stated that he had a sample of 1 million adults. We definitely need to be careful.
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Povilas S
Povilas S2 months ago
😁

Not global warming

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Shubhankar Kulkarni
Shubhankar Kulkarni Nov 12, 2020

[1]https://www.jci.org/articles/view/135006

[2]https://theconversation.com/how-rising-temperatures-affect-our-health-123016

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Povilas S
Povilas S2 months ago
"It is easier for the body to store the heat (when the ambient temperature is higher)" - what would be the mechanism of the body for doing this?
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Shubhankar Kulkarni
Shubhankar Kulkarni2 months ago
Povilas S
1. "Heat is stored in body fluids, muscles and bones, resulting in an increase in the core temperature."
2. Heat shock proteins are activated to protect enzyme systems and prevent cellular death. These proteins enable excess heat to be stored temporarily. (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4515708/)
Another interesting study shows heat stored in muscles during exercise (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2269891/).
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Juran3 months ago
Thank you for the contribution! I was thinking about this one, too, but I couldn't find something interesting.
For me, it also makes sense that the body temperature decreasing could be a potentially good strategy against global warming, but I didn't see any signs of this happening. I guess there really is something with much bigger effect that causes the drop.

I don't think its population getting older

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Shubhankar Kulkarni
Shubhankar Kulkarni Nov 12, 2020

[1]https://ourworldindata.org/grapher/age-dependency-breakdown

[2]https://ourworldindata.org/world-population-growth

[3]https://www.prb.org/2020-world-population-data-sheet/#:~:text=The%20world%20population%20is%20projected,as%20in%20the%20United%20States.

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Juran3 months ago
I am impressed by the way how you solve problems! The data you extrapolated really says that older population temperature could not be responsible for the drop. I guess it could play a small part in it, but can't fully address it.

What could affect your extrapolated data is the fact that 65 years of age in 1861 was different from being 65 years old today. Since people's lifespan prolonged in this period, maybe being 65 then is more similar to today's 75/80.
But even if we adjust the data (e.g. that today's 65 is 45 in 1861), I think the rate of change would still not be big enough to independently address the problem.

Maybe the hypothalamus?

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Martina Pesce
Martina Pesce Nov 13, 2020

[1][1] D. Grimaldi et al., “Evidence of a diurnal thermogenic handicap in obesity,” Chronobiol. Int., 2015.

[2][1] F. Bastardot, P. Marques-Vidal, and P. Vollenweider, “Association of body temperature with obesity. The CoLaus study,” Int. J. Obes., 2019.

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Juran3 months ago
Thank you Martina Pesce on your contributions! This could be on track of something very specific and easier to check, not only statistically, but also experimentally. I like the second paper you referenced. It's simple and clear.

But what they state is that body temperature is positively associated with obesity markers in men and postmenopausal women, what is different from our theory in the beginning of the session. That would mean that our temperature is decreasing because we are getting more fit.

But they also state some other interesting viewpoints that could help us:
- the increase body area of obese subjects does not influence significantly their temperature,
- adipose tissue is secreting hormones (leptin, adiponectin, and cytokines) that could affect other systems like cardiovascular and increase the temperature
- they suspect on indirect relationship between intestinal microbiota composition and thermal homeostasis in humans
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Martina Pesce
Martina Pesce3 months ago
Juran K.
the temperature is positively correlated in the second paper, yes, but in many more was the opposite. I also like more the clarity of the last one.


So, considering that the theme is discussed and sustained in both the opposites directions, it may actually not be the best indicator for our investigation.
This actually sounds to me familiar and typical for obesity-related topics.
It's a very complex phenomenon influenced by many different factors that itself influence many other factors.
edit: just after this I found that somehow obesity is side correlated, for that check my contribution "Great for the lifespan"

A bit of everything

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Martina Pesce
Martina Pesce Nov 13, 2020
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Shubhankar Kulkarni
Shubhankar Kulkarni3 months ago
Martina Pesce I had the same thought. You beat me to it. :)
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Juran3 months ago
I agree with you. Maybe I can do an updating list of proposed "maybe's and maybe-not's" on the bottom of session description, so that every newcomer has an overall picture what has been proposed or not.

Other environmental factors (if not global warming)

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Povilas S
Povilas S Jan 05, 2021
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Shubhankar Kulkarni
Shubhankar Kulkarni3 days ago
Just adding a reference here, which might be useful while writing about the whole thing:
The global carbon project measures the greenhouse gas emissions and notes its causes (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_Carbon_Project).
Particularly, this image is useful - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_Carbon_Project#/media/File:Global_Carbon_Emissions.svg
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Darko Savic
Darko Savica month ago
If the rise of atmospheric CO2 is the cause, then many animal species should be affected as well. How is the body temperature of wild animals or a domesticated species that lives outdoors? Even cattle results would be viable.

In which situations is the body temperature of animals taken/logged on a regular basis, over years? Expensive racehorses, various famous endangered animals that are being tracked, etc.

How are sea animals doing? Dolphins? Whales? Do any of them have permanent monitoring devices that also report the body temperature?
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Shubhankar Kulkarni
Shubhankar Kulkarnia month ago
Povilas S CO2 concentrations stood out when I read this. So I did some research and found that it might be true - an increase in the ambient CO2 concentration may decrease core body temperature. Here is an amazing paper (https://journals.physiology.org/doi/full/10.1152/japplphysiol.00010.2010) that demonstrates it (please look at Figure 1A). They made their participants exercise (cardio) for 60 minutes with and without CO2-enriched ambient air and monitored their core temperature (oesophageal temperature), blood pressure, and heart rate throughout. They found that although the blood pressure and the heart rate did not change, the rise in body temperature due to exercise was lower in the CO2-enriched air and the normal air.

Moreover, according to another paper, the solubility constant of CO2 in the blood depends on body temperature. The rise in body temperature decreases the solubility constant. Therefore, probably, to accommodate the increased CO2 from the ambient air in the blood, the temperature of the blood decreases. (https://www.jbc.org/content/44/1/131.full.pdf)

Also, the global average atmospheric carbon dioxide was the highest in 2019 (409.8 parts per million). Carbon dioxide levels then were higher than at any point in at least the last 800,000 years. (https://www.climate.gov/news-features/understanding-climate/climate-change-atmospheric-carbon-dioxide#:~:text=Global%20atmospheric%20carbon%20dioxide%20was,%C2%B1%200.1%20ppm%20per%20year.) Therefore, even if certain geographical areas have a higher CO2 concentration than others, the difference is insignificant compared to the increase in the global average over time.

However, there is a small twist in this. Although the body temperature decreases to accommodate more CO2, it also decreases to compensate for the decreased oxygen levels in the atmosphere. There are two ways in which the body compensates for oxygen deficiency -
1. By increasing respiration (inhalation of O2) and by increasing the solubility of O2 in the blood.
2. Lowering oxygen demands by the body by decreasing the body temperature. (https://journals.physiology.org/doi/abs/10.1152/ajplegacy.1937.120.1.190?journalCode=ajplegacy) It was shown that mice exposed to air containing 8.1% oxygen showed a drop in their body temperature by about 2.5 to 3 deg C. Also, if CO2 is increased by 3%, the body temperature decreases further. Also, if the room temperature is elevated to 35 deg. C., the mice died when exposed to an oxygen pressure, which they could tolerate at normal room temperature (probably 25 deg. C.). To drive the point further, here is a reference that shows the fall in atmospheric O2 content over the years. (https://www.oxygenlevels.org/)

Taken together, these studies demonstrate that decrease in atmospheric O2 and an increase in atmospheric CO2 cause a fall in body temperature. As these conditions are currently observed at the global level, the global fall in the body temperature could be attributed to these.

Progressive increase in global iron deficiency

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Brett M.
Brett M. Jan 19, 2021

[1]https://www.who.int/vmnis/anaemia/prevalence/summary/anaemia_data_status_t2/en/

[2]https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5112924/

[3]https://www.nature.com/articles/pr19871174.pdf?origin=ppub

[4]https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6531837/

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Shubhankar Kulkarni
Shubhankar Kulkarni4 days ago
Juran Povilas S Here is another study that supports the anemia hypothesis. Blood iron profiles of people from the hunter-gatherer communities and former hunter-gatherers from Dobe in the Kalahari desert of Botswana were measured between 1969 and 1987. Similarly, in 1988 and 1989, iron profiles were measured in people from Kutse, another place in the Kalahari Desert of Botswana, which had recently shifted to a sedentary lifestyle. Here, the effect of change in diet on the blood profile can be ruled out since these residents still relied primarily on wild animals for meat. The profiles from the older studies were healthier than those from the newer ones. The authors attribute the unhealthy iron profiles (anemia) to the transition from a hunter-gatherer lifestyle to a more sedentary lifestyle. Despite any change in diet, morbidity (chronic inflammatory diseases) is high because the residents now live in a relatively aggregated settlement pattern instead of their previous dispersed pattern.

The discussion section sheds further light on the topic. The authors mention that numerous studies have found that the anemia of chronic disease/ inflammation is an acute-phase response to infectious and inflammatory diseases. Reduced blood iron levels, fever, elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and normal to elevated iron stores are effects of various cytokines, particularly interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Bacteria require iron but cannot store it themselves and cancer cells cannot store enough iron required for their propagation. Therefore, the body tries to protect itself by withholding the needed iron in case of disease, which is accomplished by removing iron from the circulation and putting it into storage where it is less accessible. The body tries to fight the pathogens and the cancer cells by starving them of iron in addition to other immune pathways. As another example, a decrease in the blood iron levels following surgeries may be a defensive mechanism by the body to prevent postoperative infections. [1]

Therefore, a change in lifestyle can be one of the reasons behind the reduction in body temperature via anemia. Another statement by Povilas S in his contribution "Other environmental factors (if not global warming)" also supports this hypothesis - "It was mentioned in the article that those people who lived in more remote villages had higher BT than those who lived closer to a bigger town." More and more people have immigrated to the cities in the last two centuries and even the cities have developed rapidly to ease human lifestyle. On the other hand, population density in the cities is on the rise (aiding the rate of infections) and also chronic non-infectious diseases.

I, therefore, revisited the reference from my contribution "Reduced number of infections or physical activity" and the paper indicates that there has been a reduction in the mortality due to infections and not a decrease in the number of infections. A reduction in mortality could have been achieved by improved health care over the years, however, the rate of infections is a different issue dependent on the density of population and individual immunity. To add to that, other inflammatory diseases like cancer and diabetes may be contributing to the increased levels of cytokines and anemic symptoms. Another study came to the same conclusion - "Our investigation indicates that humans in high-income countries have changed physiologically over the last 200 birth years with a mean body temperature 1.6% lower than in the pre-industrial era. The role that this physiologic ‘evolution’ plays in human anthropometrics and longevity is unknown." Using measurements from three cohorts — the Union Army Veterans of the Civil War (N = 23,710; measurement years 1860–1940), the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey I (N = 15,301; 1971–1975), and the Stanford Translational Research Integrated Database Environment (N = 150,280; 2007–2017) — the authors determined that mean body temperature has decreased by 0.03°C per decade. [2]

Also, in studies where they measured temperatures of a large number of participants, they would not usually consider a person who has a fever for the study. I think it is safe to assume that a very high percentage of the participants did not have a fever during their measurement.

References:
1. Kent S, Dunn D. Anemia and the transition of nomadic hunter-gatherers to a sedentary life-style: follow-up study of a Kalahari community. Am J Phys Anthropol. 1996 Mar;99(3):455-72. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1096-8644(199603)99:3<455::AID-AJPA7>3.0.CO;2-V. PMID: 8850185. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8850185/
2. Myroslava Protsiv, Catherine Ley, Joanna Lankester, Trevor Hastie, Julie Parsonnet. Decreasing human body temperature in the United States since the Industrial Revolution. eLife 2020;9:e49555 DOI: 10.7554/eLife.49555. https://elifesciences.org/articles/49555
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Shubhankar Kulkarni
Shubhankar Kulkarnia month ago
An interesting finding, Brett M. I am taking a different approach to confirm whether low iron levels can lead to a decrease in the global average body temperature. I want to sort this out mathematically. From the measurements displayed in the session text, we know that the average human body temperature is/ was 37 deg. C and we know that the current average is 36.39 deg. C. If 75% of the population (having normal iron levels) has a body temperature of 37 deg. C. and if the remaining 25% (having reduced iron levels/ anemic individuals) has a body temperature of X deg. C., (75*37 + 25*X)/100 should equal to 36.39 deg. C. Using this equation, the value to X is 34.56 deg. C.

A body temperature of 34 deg. C. is not impossible and it is a classic sign of hypothermia. However, I could not find the absolute decrease in the body temperature caused by iron deficiency in humans. If there are reports that anemic individuals present a body temperature of 34 deg. C. or lower, we might be able to prove the point.

Furthermore, I am not sure whether all forms of anemia cause a decrease in the body temperature but, in this regard, about 47% of the urban Indians have vitamin 12 deficiency, [1] which can also lead to anemia (Pernicious anemia). 47% is a sufficient proportion to cause a nation-wide decrease in the average body temperature. However, again, I could not find the net decrease in the body temperature caused by anemia.

Here is another study that concludes that a transition from the nomadic hunter-gatherer to the urbanized and sedentary lifestyle has increased the prevalence of anemia. The authors also mention that the diet of the studied people (Kalahari community in Africa) did not change with the transition and, hence, the drop in the iron levels cannot be attributed to diet. [2]

Reference:
1. Singla R, Garg A, Surana V, Aggarwal S, Gupta G, Singla S. Vitamin B12 Deficiency is Endemic in Indian Population: A Perspective from North India. Indian J Endocrinol Metab. 2019;23(2):211-214. doi:10.4103/ijem.IJEM_122_19
2. Kent S, Dunn D. Anemia and the transition of nomadic hunter-gatherers to a sedentary life-style: follow-up study of a Kalahari community. Am J Phys Anthropol. 1996 Mar;99(3):455-72. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1096-8644(199603)99:3<455::AID-AJPA7>3.0.CO;2-V. PMID: 8850185.
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Jurana month ago
Nice correlation data. I would agree that the correlation between iron and thermogenesis exists. Many sources confirm that low body temperature (BT) is one of the symptoms of low blood iron [1, 2].

Few things I would like to check before concluding anything.
The first one is the statistics of anemia from 2016 compared to 2011-2012, 2003-2004, and 1993-2005. Many historical measurements in medicine are significantly lower because of the increase in the number of BT measurements as a standard procedure (statistically more anemic persons will be measured and reported). Also, technology is becoming more and more sensitive and thus, more patients emerge every day.

The second thing that concerns me is the fact that in human experiments, they mostly correlated iron-deficiency and like you said, "a blunted thermogenic response when exposed to cold temperatures", but there were no data on the effect of iron deficiency on the BT when in normal conditions. Based on experiments on mice, scientists try to explain it like this:
Two possible mechanisms of how iron deficiency could affect thermogenesis are i) anemia and ii) the other involving tissue iron deficiency [3]. Iron-deficiency anemia results in decreased blood oxygen transport, which reduces the physiological response of the body temperature to cold. Low oxygen contents can result in hypoxia and further, hypothermia. The other mechanism involving tissue-iron deficiency accounts for the decreased activity of mitochondrial iron-containing enzymes that produce ATP, which reflects in, again, worse muscle response to cold.

Taking both mechanisms into account, I found strong evidence that the iron-deficiency affects the thermoregulation in cold, but not so significant in normal conditions (correct me if I am wrong). Believing that the conditions in the laboratory where the temperature was measured in previously mentioned papers [4] are normal, I am not so sure to what extent could the rate of anemia affect the observed reduction in BT. If we also take into account the Povilas S´s comment on likeliness, I think we need more research and statistics on this.

References:
1 https://consumer.healthday.com/circulatory-system-information-7/anemia-news-25/health-tip-symptoms-of-iron-deficiency-anemia-730529.html
2 https://www.medicinenet.com/iron_deficiency_symptoms_and_signs/symptoms.htm
3 https://www.nap.edu/read/5197/chapter/19#248
4 https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/10/201028171432.htm

How about prostaglandins and IUD?

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Martina Pesce
Martina Pesce Nov 13, 2020

[1] "Eicosanoid Synthesis and Metabolism: Prostaglandins, Thromboxanes, Leukotrienes, Lipoxins". themedicalbiochemistrypage.org. Retrieved 2018-09-21.

[2] Mary Anne Koda-Kimble (2007). Handbook of Applied Therapeutics (8th ed.). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 1104. ISBN 9780781790260.

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Shubhankar Kulkarni
Shubhankar Kulkarni3 months ago
Juran K. Only 10% of the women in the United States use intrauterine devices (https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/contraceptive.htm). Martina Pesce How do the IUDs affect body temperature - positively or negatively?
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Martina Pesce
Martina Pesce3 months ago
Shubhankar Kulkarni
UPS! I must have got confused: IUD increases the productions of prostaglandins, which increases the temperature. So, actually...not the IUD.
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Juran3 months ago
Nice! I didn't remember to look at the problem from that perspective. It could be useful to look for inner regulators of body temperature and what affects them.

Also, since 49.584% of the world population are women (https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.TOTL.FE.ZS), the intrauterine device could affect the temperature on a larger scale. But we first need the data on how many females actually use those.

Reduced number of infections or physical activity

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Shubhankar Kulkarni
Shubhankar Kulkarni Nov 24, 2020

[1]https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/768249

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Shubhankar Kulkarni
Shubhankar Kulkarni16 days ago
An increase in the consumption of antibiotics may have led to a decrease in the type and number of microbes associated with the human body. The activity of the microbes generates heat. Lower microbial concentration generates a lower amount of heat. Hence, the drop in body temperature.

Reference: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1Scf7ZJcPUY&feature=youtu.be
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Juran3 months ago
I understand the model you propose and yes, it could explain the observation of slightly reduced body temperature. It fits in "a bit of everything" theory.

But the problem with this is that the measurements are usually done at the hospital, in one moment, on one, usually sick individual, once. Statistically, it could be possible that the sample is nonbiased, but then the patients at the regular examination need to be taken into account, too. What they did in the study I mentioned in the session description is that they adjusted the data to the patient diagnosis (infections, general state) and didn't find a pattern.

Concerning physical activity, it is not very likely that someone will do a hardcore physical activity and then go to an examination or measure the body temperature and report it to a doctor. I don't know how we could fit that into the adjustment algorithm, but it could definitely contribute.
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Shubhankar Kulkarni
Shubhankar Kulkarni3 months ago
Juran K. I agree with your comment concerning the effect of decreased infections on average body temperature.

Regarding physical activity, although it is unlikely that the participant had a run and then visited the clinic, the regular commute would be involving more physical activity then. For example, the participant would be more like to ride a cycle and climb up the floor to the clinic than travel in a car and use the lift. Since the year of the initial measurement is 1861, we cannot eliminate this possibility.

Ambient temperature in the clinic might explain the differences in the average body temperature

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Shubhankar Kulkarni
Shubhankar Kulkarni Nov 26, 2020

[1]Mackowiak PA, Wasserman SS, Levine MM. A Critical Appraisal of 98.6°F, the Upper Limit of the Normal Body Temperature, and Other Legacies of Carl Reinhold August Wunderlich. JAMA. 1992;268(12):1578–1580. doi:10.1001/jama.1992.03490120092034 https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/article-abstract/400116

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Juran3 months ago
This is an excellent find! I really like the simplicity of the study you linked. It could play a role in the mentioned changes in body temperature.

What I find a bit tricky is the sample size (41 participants), but that could be taken as a minor flaw.
Also, as you mentioned, the extreme temperatures seem a bit too radical. Plus, even after these extreme conditions, the temperature seems to get back to normal in the period of 20 mins, especially in females. If we take into account the average temperature differences inside and outside the hospitals and the average waiting time, the effects fall fairly below significant, I think.

What could support this idea is the integration of the thermometers into smartwatches or smartphones to follow the body temperature continuously. Also, the COVID-19 temperature measurement at airports, hospitals, pharmacies, shops, etc. could be used to test the theory.
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Shubhankar Kulkarni
Shubhankar Kulkarni3 months ago
Juran K. Agreed! Even I loved the simplicity of the study, there was no confusion.

Yes, there will be a lot of data with COVID-19 testing that can be put to use for topics other than COVID-19.

Measurements were taken in different climate zones

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Darko Savic
Darko Savic Jan 15, 2021
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Jurana month ago
True, the measurements were done on people in different climate areas.

While researching on this, I found tons of material supporting a theory of the human body being an amazing machine that is capable of coping with different environmental temperatures, just so it's temperature could remain unchanged. Body functions perfectly on let's say, 36.6 degrees Celsius. When we say body, we mean organs and tissues made of cells, which are made of lipids, sugars, and proteins. To "work" on optimal turnover times, synthesize, degrade, or maintain the rate of chemical reactions, the body needs optimal conditions. Any small change in body temperature reflects heavily on cell and tissue mechanisms. That could be the reason why hot-blooded organisms, including humans, should have a constant body temperature. if the protein, sugar, and lipid structure or content are the same in all climate zones, then the body temperature should be, too.

On the other hand, why it could be true that body temperature change according to the climate? The problem is that we do not always measure the "body" temperature, but oral, tympanic, or rectal temperatures, from which the oral and tympanic vary the most. How could they vary? Some findings reported different body temperature measurements after the 15-min exposure to cold or hot temperatures. Shubhankar Kulkarni mentioned it in his contribution above and concluded that even much smaller temperatures could play a role in a temperature change. Therefore, it's not strange to conclude that people living in different climate zone could have slightly different "surface" body temperature - just because of the measurement method.

That could be the reason why your idea could be true (for this study). But are the "real" temperatures of the body changing according to the climate zones? I would say not.
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Povilas S
Povilas Sa month ago
Juran K. , Darko Savic This seems to be already accepted as know phenomenon, it couldn't be just from one study. The one with Tsimane people is another example, are there more?
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Povilas S
Povilas Sa month ago
https://elifesciences.org/articles/49555 It seems that there's enough proof.

A decrease in the resting metabolic rate

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Shubhankar Kulkarni
Shubhankar Kulkarni Feb 23, 2021

[1]https://elifesciences.org/articles/49555

Great for the lifespan

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Martina Pesce
Martina Pesce Nov 23, 2020

[1] Conti, B.; Sanchez-Alavez, M.; Winsky-Sommerer, R.; Morale, M. C.; Lucero, J.; Brownell, S.; Fabre, V.; Huitron-Resendiz, S.; Henriksen, S.; Zorrilla, E. P.; De Lecea, L.; Bartfai, T. (2006). "Transgenic Mice with a Reduced Core Body Temperature Have an Increased Life Span". Science. 314 (5800): 825–828.

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Shubhankar Kulkarni
Shubhankar Kulkarni3 months ago
Martina Pesce Great find! The causality you mentioned in your suggestion (lower temperature leads to a higher lifespan) is the opposite of the one mentioned in another suggestion ("I don't think its population getting older") on this session. I think what you have suggested can very well be the (or one of the) reasons for the reduced body temperature. We were looking at it from the perspective of an "effect" but it can also be the "cause" of something. In the paper you cited, the authors report a reduction in the physical activity of the mice, which can also be one of the reasons. We do not know whether the reduction in physical activity was due to genetic modification (Heterozygous Hcrt-UCP2 mice).

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General comments

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Darko Savic
Darko Savica month ago
While this couldn't be the reason, it should be mentioned. Entropy is slowly but persistently decreasing the temperature of everything in the universe. We seem to be on the one-way road to the heat death of the universe https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heat_death_of_the_universe.
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Jurana month ago
Darko Savic Interesting theory. I didn`t hear about it before. That would mean that the temperature of the air, earth, sea, and all the other waters should be decreasing too? I guess the air is heavily influenced by global warming, but the other elements should respond to this, right? In our case, I guess the time frame of 20-30 years is definitely too small to "catch" the difference in temperature caused by the entropy. But if we had a much bigger time frame (since these events such as the Big Freeze are planned to occur in about 10^100 years), we could catch the change caused by the entropy.
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Darko Savic
Darko Savica month ago
Juran For us on earth, things will first get much hotter (sun expanding) before they get colder. But eventually, yes - entropy is coming for everything in the universe - https://youtu.be/80tdw-kBiu8