The epigenetic age and pregnancy.
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- The studies above determine the epigenetic age of young women aged 20-22 years old with gravidity. The same research should be conducted but with more senior women to see if their epigenetic age also increases with gravidity.
- Does the epigenetic age of women change throughout pregnancy, i.e. before, during, and after pregnancy?
- Compare the epigenetic ages of women that have one birth to those that have multiple deliveries at the same time, i.e. twins, and triplets.
- Find out whether mothers from three different age groups (18-25, 26-35, and 36-45) have similar epigenetic ages throughout their pregnancy (before, during, and after pregnancy)
Michaeli, Tal Falick, Yehudit Bergman, and Yuval Gielchinsky. "Rejuvenating effect of pregnancy on the mother." Fertility and Sterility 103.5 (2015): 1125-1128.
Ziomkiewicz, Anna, et al. "Evidence for the cost of reproduction in humans: high lifetime reproductive effort is associated with greater oxidative stress in post-menopausal women." PloS one 11.1 (2016): e0145753.
Armstrong, Nicola J., et al. "Aging, exceptional longevity and comparisons of the Hannum and Horvath epigenetic clocks." Epigenomics 9.5 (2017): 689-700.
Ryan, Calen P., et al. "Reproduction predicts shorter telomeres and epigenetic age acceleration among young adult women." Scientific reports 8.1 (2018): 1-9.
Kresovich, Jacob K., et al. "Reproduction, DNA methylation and biological age." Human Reproduction 34.10 (2019): 1965-1973