Why we still vaccinate mostly using needles?
Image credit: NIH
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Is the problem still unsolved?
Is it concisely described?
- Through the skin or muscles (cutaneous, dermal, epicutaneous, epidermal, intradermal, patch, percutaneous, skin, topical, and transcutaneous)
- Using the needle
- Passive diffusion from the patch (with or without additives)
- Mechanical disruption (Tape, friction, shaving, brushing)
- Mechanical disruption using microneedles
- Heat disruption (heat of electrical resistance to disrupt tiny openings in the stratum corneum)
- Electricity disruption (electroporation, Iontophoresis)
- Light disruption by laser (laser-assisted drug delivery)
- Disruption of stratum corneum using ultrasound
- Jet injections (squirt the liquid under high pressure directly into the tissue without the needles)
- Through the nose or mouth by breathing the vaccine in
- Through the eyes (used in poultry )
The problem with oral vaccines
- delivery of intact and active antigen to the intestine
- transport across the mucosal barrier
- and the eventual activation of APC (antigen presenting cells) that activate CD4 T-cells .
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Mudie DM, Amidon GL, Amidon GE, Physiological parameters for oral delivery and in vitro testing, Mol. Pharm 7 (2010) 1388–1405.
Pavot V, Rochereau N, Genin C, Verrier B, Paul S, New insights in mucosal vaccine development, Vaccine 30 (2012) 142–154.
Davitt CJH, Lavelle EC, Delivery strategies to enhance oral vaccination against enteric infections, Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev 91 (2015) 52–69.