Why we still vaccinate mostly using needles?
Image credit: NIH
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- Through the skin or muscles (cutaneous, dermal, epicutaneous, epidermal, intradermal, patch, percutaneous, skin, topical, and transcutaneous)
- Using the needle
- Passive diffusion from the patch (with or without additives)
- Mechanical disruption (Tape, friction, shaving, brushing)
- Mechanical disruption using microneedles
- Heat disruption (heat of electrical resistance to disrupt tiny openings in the stratum corneum)
- Electricity disruption (electroporation, Iontophoresis)
- Light disruption by laser (laser-assisted drug delivery)
- Disruption of stratum corneum using ultrasound
- Jet injections (squirt the liquid under high pressure directly into the tissue without the needles)
- Through the nose or mouth by breathing the vaccine in
- Through the eyes (used in poultry )
The problem with oral vaccines
- delivery of intact and active antigen to the intestine
- transport across the mucosal barrier
- and the eventual activation of APC (antigen presenting cells) that activate CD4 T-cells .
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Davitt CJH, Lavelle EC, Delivery strategies to enhance oral vaccination against enteric infections, Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev 91 (2015) 52–69.